Homogamy among dating cohabiting and married couples
Yet, there are reasons to expect that the stability of hypogamous marriages also varies with their spatial distribution. Cross-national studies show that gender attitudes are more egalitarian in contexts where women tend to pursue their own educational and professional careers (Kalmijn 2007).
Husbands with lower education than their wives might feel their gender identity as the main breadwinner or the household head to be threatened (Tichenor 2005).Educationally hypogamous marriages, where the wife is more educated than the husband, have been expected to be less stable than other educational pairings, in part because they do not conform to social norms.With the reversal of the gender gap in education, such marriages have become more common than in the past.As a consequence of these dissimilarities, they are expected to experience more tensions and frustrations than their educational homogamous counterparts, resulting in a higher likelihood of union dissolution (Kalmijn et al.
2005; Lewis and Spanier 1979; Lyngstad 2006; Mäenpää and Jalovaara 2014).
For example, Liebroer and Dourleijn (2006) investigated the link between premarital cohabitation and divorce and showed that the negative impact of cohabitation on marital stability depends on how far cohabitation has diffused within a society.